59/1991

Yleissopimus lapsen oikeuksista

Konvention om barnets rättigheter

Convention on the Rights of the Child

Perustiedot

Sopimustyyppi:
II Monenväliset sopimukset
4. Ihmisoikeudet ja perusvapaudet
Allekirjoituspäivä:

20.11.1989 (New York)

Ratifiointipäivä:20.06.1991 R
Voimaantulopäivä:20.07.1991
Kansainvälinen voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
Sopimukset: 59/1991 60/1991
Säädösviitteet: 1129/1991 1130/1991

Sopimukseen tehdyt muutokset

  • 30/2002, 31/200225.5.2000Valinnainen pöytäkirja lasten osallistumisesta aseellisiin selkkauksiin
  • 40/2012, 41/201225.5.2000Valinnainen pöytäkirja lasten myynnistä, lapsiprostituutiosta ja lapsipornografiasta
  • 16/200312.12.1995Yleissopimuksen 43 artiklan 2 kappaleen muutos

Osapuolet

  • AFGANISTAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 28.03.1994 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 27.04.1994
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    Declaration:
    "The Government of the Republic of Afghanistan reserves the right to express, upon ratifying the Convention, reservations on all provisions of the Convention that are incompatible with the laws of Islamic Shari´a and the local legislation in effect."

  • ALANKOMAAT
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.02.1995 H
    Voimaantulopäivä: 08.03.1995
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    "Article 26:
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts the provisions of article 26 of the Convention with the reservation that these provisions shall not imply an independent entitlement of children to social security, including social insurance.
    "Article 37:
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts the provisions of article 37 (c) of the Convention with the reservation that these provisions shall not prevent the application of adult penal law to children of sixteen years and older, provided that certain criteria laid down by law have been met.
    "Article 40:
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts the provisions of article 40 of the Convention with the reservation that cases involving minor offences may be tried without the presence of legal assistance and that with respect to such offences the position remains that no provision is made in all cases for a review of the facts or of any measures imposed as a consequence."
    Declarations:
    "Article 14:
    It is the understanding of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands that article 14 of the Convention is in accordance with the provisions of article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December 1966 and that this article shall include the freedom of a child to have or adopt a religion or belief of his or her choice as soon as the child is capable of making such choice in view of his or her age or maturity.
    "Article 22:
    With regard to article 22 of the Convention, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands declares:
    a) that it understands the term "refugee" in paragraph 1 of this article as having the same meaning as in article 1 of the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951; and
    b) that it is of the opinion that the obligation imposed under the terms of this article does not prevent
    - the submission of a request for admission from being made subject to certain conditions, failure to meet such conditions resulting in inadmissibility;
    - the referral of a request for admission to a third State, in the event that such a State is considered to be primarily responsible for dealing with the request for asylum.
    "Article 38
    With regard to article 38 of the Convention, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands declares that it is of the opinion that States would not be allowed to involve children directly or indirectly in hostilities and that the minimum age for the recruitment or incorporation of children in the armed forces should be above fifteen years.
    In times of armed conflict, provisions shall prevail that are most conducive to guaranteeing the protection of children under international law, as referred to in article 41 of the Convention."

    Subsequently, on 17 December 1997, the Government of the Netherlands informed the Secretary-General that it had decided to accept the Convention on behalf of the Netherlands Antilles subject to the following reservations and declarations:
    Reservations:
    "Article 26:
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts the provisions of article 26 of the Convention with the reservation that these provisions shall not imply an independent entitlement of children to social security, including insurance.
    Article 37:
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts the provisions of article 37(c) of the Convention with the reservation that these provisions shall not prevent :
    - the application of adult penal law to children of sixteen years and older, provided that certain criteria laid down by law have been met;
    - that a child which has been detained will not always be accommodated separately from adults; if the number of children that has to be detained at a certain time is unexpectedly large, (temporary) accommodations together with adults may be unavoidable.
    Article 40:
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts the provisions of article 40 of the Convention with the reservation that cases involving minor offences may be tried without the presence of legal assistance and that with respect to such offences the position remains that no provision is made in all cases for a review of the facts or of any measures imposed as a consequence.
    Declarations:
    Article 14:
    It is the understanding of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands that article 14 of the Convention is in accordance with the provisions of article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December 1966 and that this article shall include the freedom of a child to have or adopt a religion or belief of his or her choice as soon as the child is capable of making such choice in view of his or her age or maturity.
    Article 22:
    The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands declares that whereas the Netherlands Antilles are not bound by the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, article 22 of the present Convention shall be interpreted as containing a reference only to such other international human rights or humanitarian instruments as are binding on the Kingdom of the Netherlands with respect to the Netherlands Antilles.
    Article 38:
    With regard to article 38 of the Convention, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands declares that it is of the opinion that States should not be allowed to involve children directly or indirectly in hostilities and that the minimum age for the recruitment or incorporation of children in the armed forces should be above fifteen years.
    In times of armed conflict, provisions shall prevail that are most conducive to guaranteeing the protection of children under international law, as referred to in article 41 of the Convention."

    Further, on 18 December 2000, the Government of the Netherlands informed the Secretary-General that it had decided to accept the Convention on behalf of Aruba subject to the following reservations and declarations:
    Reservations:
    "Article 26
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts the provisions of article 26 of the Convention with the reservation that these provisions shall not imply an independent entitlement of children to social security, including social insurance.
    Article 37
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts the provisions of article 37 (c) of the Convention with the reservation that these provisions shall not prevent:
    - the application of adult penal law to children of sixteen years and older, provided that certain criteria laid down by law have been met;
    - that a child which has been detained will not always be accommodated separately from adults; if the number of children that has to be detained at a certain time is unexpectedly large, (temporary) accommodation together with adults may be unavoidable.
    Article 40
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts the provisions of article 40 of the Convention with the reservation that cases involving minor offences may be tried without the presence of legal assistance and that with respect to such offences the position remains that no provision is made in all cases for a review of the facts or of any measures imposed as a consequence."
    Declarations:
    "Article 14
    It is the understanding of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands that Article 14 of the Convention is in accordance with the provisions of Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December 1966 and that this Article shall include the freedom of a child to have or adopt a religion or belief of his or her choice as soon as the child is capable of making such choice in view of his or her age or maturity.
    Article 22
    Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands declares that whereas Aruba is not bound by the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Article 22 of the present Convention shall be interpreted as containing a reference only to such other international human rights or humanitarian instruments as are binding on the Kingdom of the Netherlands with respect to Aruba.
    Article 38
    With regard to Article 38 of the Convention, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands declares that it is of the opinion that States should not be allowed to involve children directly or indirectly in hostilities and that the minimum age for the recruitment or incorporation of children in the armed forces should be above fifteen years. In times of armed conflict, provisions shall prevail that are most conducive to guaranteeing the protection of children under international law, as referred to in Article 41 of the Convention."


    Alueellinen soveltaminen: Sovelletaan myös Alankomaiden Antilleihin 17.12.1997 lukien ja Arubaan 18.12.2000 lukien.

  • ALBANIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 27.02.1992 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 28.03.1992
  • ALGERIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 16.04.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 16.05.1993
    Varauma:

    Interpretative declarations:
    Article 14, paragraphs 1 and 2:
    The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of article 14 shall be interpreted by the Algerian Government in compliance with the basic foundations of the Algerian legal system, in particular:
    - With the Constitution, which stipulates in its article 2 that Islam is the State religion and in its article 35 that "there shall be no infringement of the inviolability of the freedom of conviction and the inviolability of the freedom of opinion";
    - With Law No. 84-11 of 9 June 1984, comprising the Family Code, which stipulates that a child´s education is to take place in accordance with the religion of its father.
    Articles 13, 16 and 17:
    Articles 13, 16 and 17 shall be applied while taking account of the interest of the child and the need to safeguard its physical and mental integrity. In this framework, the Algerian Government shall interpret the provisions of these articles while taking account of:
    - The provisions of the Penal Code, in particular those sections relating to breaches of public order, to public decency and to the incitement of minors to immorality and debauchery;
    - The provisions of Law No. 90-07 of 3 April 1990, comprising the Information Code, and particularly its article 24 stipulating that "the director of a publication destined for children must be assisted by an educational advisory body";
    - Article 26 of the same Code, which provides that "national and foreign periodicals and specialized publications, whatever their nature or purpose, must not contain any illustration, narrative, information or insertion contrary to Islamic morality, national values or human rights or advocate racism, fanaticism and treason. Further, such publications must contain no publicity or advertising that may promote violence and delinquency."

  • ANDORRA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 02.01.1996 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 01.02.1996
    Varauma:

    Declarations:
    A.- The Principality of Andorra deplores the fact that the [said Convention] does not prohibit the use of children in armed conflicts. It also disagrees with the provisions of article 38, paragraphs 2 and 3, concerning the participation and recruitment of children from the age of 15.

  • ANGOLA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.12.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.01.1991
  • ANTIGUA JA BARBUDA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.10.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.11.1993
  • ARABIEMIRAATTIEN LIITTO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 03.01.1997 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.02.1997
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    Article 7:
    The United Arab Emirates is of the view that the acquisition of nationality is an internal matter and one that is regulated and whose terms and conditions are established by national legislation.
    Article 14:
    The United Arab Emirates shall be bound by the tenor of this article to the extent that it does not conflict with the principles and provisions of Islamic law.
    Article 17:
    While the United Arab Emirates appreciates and respects the functions assigned to the mass media by the article, it shall be bound by its provisions in the light of the requirements of domestic statues and laws and, in accordance with the recognition accorded them in the preamble to the Convention, such a manner that the country´s traditions and cultural values are not violated.
    Article 21:
    Since, given its commitment to the principles of Islamic law, the United Arab Emirates does not permit the system of adoption, it has reservations with respect to this article and does not deem it necesary to be bound by its provisions.

  • ARGENTIINA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 04.12.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 03.01.1991
    Varauma:

    Reservation and declarations made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
    Reservation:
    The Argentine Republic enters a reservation to subparagraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e) of article 21 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and declares that those subparagraphs shall not apply in areas within its jurisdiction because, in its view, before they can be applied a strict mechanism must exist for the legal protection of children in matters of inter-country adoption, in order to prevent trafficking in and the sale of children.
    Declarations:
    Concerning article 1 of the Convention, the Argentine Republic declares that the article must be interpreted to the effect that a child means every human being from the moment of conception up to the age of eighteen.
    Concerning article 38 of the Convention, the Argentine Republic declares that it would have liked the Convention categorically to prohibit the use of children in armed conflicts. Such a prohibition exists in its domestic law which, by virtue of article 41 of the Convention, it shall continue to apply in this regard.
    Upon ratification:
    Declaration:
    Concerning subparagraph (f) of article 24 of the Convention, the Argentine Republic considers that questions relating to family planning are the exclusive concern of parents in accordance with ethical and moral principles and understands it to be a State obligation, under this article, to adopt measures providing guidance for parents and education for responsible parenthood.

  • ARMENIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 23.06.1993 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 23.07.1993
  • AUSTRALIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 17.12.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 16.01.1991
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    "Australia accepts the general principles of article 37. In relation to the second sentence of paragraph (c), the obligation to separate children from adults in prison is accepted only to the extent that such imprisonment is considered by the responsible authorities to be feasible and consistent with the obligation that children be able to maintain contact with their families, having regard to the geography and demography of Australia. Australia, therefore, ratifies the Convention to the extent that it is unable to comply with the obligation imposed by article 37 (c)."

  • AZERBAIDZHAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 13.08.1992 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 12.09.1992
  • BAHAMA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 20.02.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 22.03.1991
    Varauma:

    Reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
    "The Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas upon signing the Convention reserves the right not to apply the provisions of article 2 of the said Convention insofar as those provisions relate to the conferment of citizenship upon a child having regard to the Provisions of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas".

  • BAHRAIN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 13.02.1992 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 14.03.1992
  • BANGLADESH
    Sitoutumispäivä: 03.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    "[The Government of Bangladesh] ratifies the Convention with a reservation to article 14, paragraph 1.
    "Also article 21 would apply subject to the existing laws and practices in Bangladesh."

  • BARBADOS
    Sitoutumispäivä: 09.10.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 08.11.1990
  • BELGIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 16.12.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 15.01.1992
    Varauma:

    Interpretative declarations:
    1. With regard to article 2, paragraph 1, according to the interpretation of the Belgian Government non-discrimination on grounds of national origin does not necessarily imply the obligation for States automatically to guarantee foreigners the same rights as their nationals. This concept should be understood as designed to rule out all arbitrary conduct but not differences in treatment based on objective and reasonable considerations, in accordance with the principles prevailing in democratic societies.
    2. Articles 13 and 15 shall be applied by the Belgian Government within the context of the provisions and limitations set forth or authorized by said Convention in articles 10 and 11 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950.
    3. The Belgian Government declares that it interprets article 14, paragraph 1, as meaning that, in accordance with the relevant provisions of article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December 1966 and article 9 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950, the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion implies also the freedom to choose his or her religion or belief.
    4. With regard to article 40, paragraph 2 (b) (v), the Belgian Government considers that the expression "according to law" at the end of that provision means that:
    (a) This provision shall not apply to minors who, under Belgian law, are declared guilty and are sentenced in a higher court following an appeal against their acquittal in a court of the first instance;
    (b) This provision shall not apply to minors who, under Belgian law, are referred directly to a higher court such as the Court of Assize.

  • BELIZE
    Sitoutumispäivä: 02.05.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • BENIN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 03.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • BHUTAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 01.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • BOLIVIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 26.06.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • BOSNIA-HERTSEGOVINA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 01.09.1993 VS
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.03.1992
  • BOTSWANA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 14.03.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 13.04.1995
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    "The Government of the Republic of Botswana enters a reservation with regard to the provisions of article 1 of the Convention and does not consider itself bound by the same in so far as such may conflict with the Laws and Statutes of Botswana."

  • BRASILIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 24.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 24.10.1990
  • BRUNEI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 27.12.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 26.01.1996
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    "[The Government of Brunei Darussalam] expresses its reservations on the provisions of the said Convention which may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam, the State, religion, and without prejudice to the generality of the said reservations, in particular expresses its reservation on articles 14, 20 and 21 of the Convention."

  • BULGARIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 03.06.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 03.07.1991
  • BURKINA FASO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 31.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 30.09.1990
  • BURUNDI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 19.10.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 18.11.1990
  • CHILE
    Sitoutumispäivä: 13.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 12.09.1990
  • COOKINSAARET
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.06.1997 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.07.1997
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    "The Government of the Cook Islands reserves the right not to apply the provisions of article 2 in so far as those provisions may relate to the conferment of Cook Islands nationality, citizenship or permanent residency upon a child having regard to the Constitution and other legislation as may from time to time be in force in the Cook Islands.
    With respect to article 10, the Government of the Cook Islands reserves the right to apply such legislation, in so far as it relates to the entry into, stay in and departure from the Cook Islands of those who do not have the right under the law of the Cook Islands to enter and remain in the Cook Islands, and to the acquisition and possession of citizenship, as it may deem necessary from time to time.
    Declarations:
    Domestically, the Convention does not apply directly. It establishes State obligations under international law that the Cook Islands fulfils in accordance with its national law.
    Article 2 paragraph (1) does not necessarily imply the obligation of States automatically to guarantee foreigners the same rights as their nationals. The concept of non-discrimination on the basis of national origin should be understood as designed to rule out all arbitrary conduct but not differences in treatment based on objective and reasonable considerations, in accordance with the principles prevailing in democratic societies.
    The Government of the Cook Islands will take the opportunity afforded by its accession to the Convention to initiate reforms in its domestic legislation relating to adoption that are in keeping with the spirit of the Convention and that it considers appropriate, in line with article 3 (2) of the Convention to ensure the well-being of the child. While all adoptions now permitted under Cook Islands law are based on the principle of the best interest of the child being of paramount consideration and authorised by the High Court in accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, the principal aim of the planned measures will be to remove vestigial discrimination provisions governing adoptions found in legislation enacted with respect to the Cook Islands prior to the acquisition of sovereignty by the Cook Islands in order to ensure non-discriminatory adoption arrangements for all Cook Islands nationals."

  • COSTA RICA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 20.09.1990
  • DJIBOUTI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.12.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 05.01.1991
    Varauma:

    Declaration:
    [The Government of Djibouti] shall not consider itself bound by any provisions or articles that are incompatible with its religion and its traditional values.

    7 December 2009: ...withdraws the said declaration with the exception of the reservations made to articles 14 and 21 of the said Convention.

  • DOMINICA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 13.03.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 12.04.1991
  • DOMINIKAANINEN TASAVALTA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 11.06.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 11.07.1991
  • ECUADOR
    Sitoutumispäivä: 23.03.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    Declaration:
    "In signing the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ecuador reaffirms . . . [that it is] especially pleased with the ninth preambular paragraph of the draft Convention, which pointed to the need to protect the unborn child, and believed that that paragraph should be borne in mind in interpreting all the articles of the Convention, particularly article 24. While the minimum age set in article 38 was, in its view, too low, [the Government of Ecuador] did not wish to endanger the chances for the Convention´s adoption by consensus and therefore would not propose any amendment to the text."

  • EGYPTI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.07.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • EL SALVADOR
    Sitoutumispäivä: 10.07.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • ERITREA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 03.08.1994 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1994
  • ESPANJA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.12.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 05.01.1991
    Varauma:

    Declarations:
    1. Spain understands that article 21, paragraph (d), of the Convention may never be construed to permit financial benefits other than those needed to cover strictly necessary expenditure which may have arisen from the adoption of children residing in another country.
    2. Spain, wishing to make common cause with those States and humanitarian organizations which have manifested their disagreement with the contents of article 38, paragraphs 2 and 3, of the Convention, also wishes to express its disagreement with the age limit fixed therein and to declare that the said limit appears insufficient, by permitting the recruitment and participation in armed conflict of children having attained the age of fifteen years.

  • ETELÄ-AFRIKKA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 16.06.1995 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 16.07.1995
  • ETELÄ-KOREA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 20.11.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 20.12.1991
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    The Republic of Korea considers itself not bound by the provisions paragraph (a) of article 21 and sub-paragraph (b) (v) of paragraph 2 of article 40.

  • ETIOPIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 14.05.1991 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 13.06.1991
  • FIDZHI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 13.08.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 12.09.1993
  • FILIPPIINIT
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 20.09.1990
  • GABON
    Sitoutumispäivä: 09.02.1994 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 11.03.1994
  • GAMBIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 08.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 07.09.1990
  • GEORGIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 02.06.1994 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.07.1994
  • GHANA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.02.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • GRENADA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.11.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 05.12.1990
  • GUATEMALA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.06.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    Declaration:
    "The State of Guatemala is signing this Convention out of a humanitarian desire to strengthen the ideals on which the Convention is based, and because it is an instrument which seeks to institutionalize, at the global level, specific norms for the protection of children, who, not being legally of age, must be under the guardianship of the family, society and the State.
    "With reference to article 1 of the Convention, and with the aim of giving legal definition to its signing of the Convention, the Government of Guatemala declares that article 3 of its Political Constitution establishes that: "The State guarantees and protects human life from the time of its conception, as well as the integrity and security of the individual."

  • GUINEA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 13.07.1990 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • GUINEA-BISSAU
    Sitoutumispäivä: 20.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 19.09.1990
  • GUYANA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 14.01.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 13.02.1991
  • HAITI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 08.06.1995 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 08.07.1995
  • HONDURAS
    Sitoutumispäivä: 10.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 09.09.1990
  • HONGKONG
    Sitoutumispäivä: -
    Voimaantulopäivä: -
  • INDONESIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 05.10.1990
  • INTIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 11.12.1992 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 10.01.1993
    Varauma:

    Declaration:
    "While fully subscribing to the objectives and purposes of the Convention, realising that certain of the rights of child, namely those pertaining to the economic, social and cultural rights can only be progressively implemented in the developing countries, subject to the extent of available resources and within the framework of international co-operation; recognising that the child has to be protected from exploitation of all forms including economic exploitation; noting that for several reasons children of different ages do work in India; having prescribed minimum ages for employment in hazardous occupations and in certain other areas; having made regulatory provisions regarding hours and conditions of employment; and being aware that it is not practical immediately to prescribe minimum ages for admission to each and every area of employment in India - the Government of India undertakes to take measures to progressively implement the provisions of article 32, particularly paragraph 2 (a), in accordance with its national legislation and relevant international instruments to which it is a State Party."

  • IRAK
    Sitoutumispäivä: 15.06.1994 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 15.07.1994
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    The Government of Iraq has seen fit to accept [the Convention] ... subject to a reservation in respect to article 14, paragraph 1, concerning the child´s freedom of religion, as allowing a child to change his or her religion runs counter to the provisions of the Islamic Shariah.

  • IRAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 13.07.1994 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 12.08.1994
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    Reservation:
    "The Islamic Republic of Iran is making reservation to the articles and provisions which may be contrary to the Islamic Shariah, and preserves the right to make such particular declaration, upon its ratification".
    Upon ratification:
    Reservation:
    "The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran reserves the right not to apply any provisions or articles of the Convention that are incompatible with Islamic Laws and the international legislation in effect."

  • IRLANTI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 28.09.1992 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 28.10.1992
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    Declaration:
    "Ireland reserves the right to make, when ratifying the Convention, such declarations or reservations as it may consider necessary."

  • ISLANTI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 28.10.1992 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 27.11.1992
    Varauma:

    Declarations:
    "1.
    "2. With respect to article 37, the separation of juvenile prisoners from adult prisoners is not obligatory under Icelandic law. However, the law relating to prisons and imprisonment provides that when deciding in which penal institution imprisonment is to take place account should be taken of, inter alia, the age of the prisoner. In light of the circumstances prevailing in Iceland it is expected that decisions on the imprisonment of juveniles will always take account of the juvenile´s best interest."

  • ISO-BRITANNIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 16.12.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 15.01.1992
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    "The United Kingdom reserves the right to formulate, upon ratifying the Convention, any reservations or interpretative declarations which it might consider necessary."
    Upon ratification:
    Declarations:
    "(a) The United Kingdom interprets the Convention as appli cable only following a live birth.
    "(b) The United Kingdom interprets the references in the Convention to `parents´´ to mean only those persons who, as a matter of national law, are treated as parents. This includes cases where the law regards a child as having only one parent, for example where a child has been adopted by one person only and in certain cases where a child is conceived other than as a result of sexual intercourse by the woman who gives birth to it and she is treated as the only parent.
    Reservations:
    "(c)
    ...
    "(e)
    . . .
    Declaration:
    "The United Kingdom reserves the right to extend the Convention at a later date to any territory for whose international relations the Government of the United Kingdom is responsible."
    7 September 1994
    Declarations:
    "The United Kingdom refers to the reservation and declarations (a), (b) and (c) which accompanied its instrument of ratification and makes a similar reservation and declarations in respect to each of its dependent territories.
    The United Kingdom, in respect of each of its dependent territories except Hong Kong and Pitcairn, reserves the right to apply article 32 subject to the laws of those territories which treat certain persons under 18 not as children but as `young people´´. In respect of Hong Kong, the United Kingdom reserves the right not to apply article 32 (b) in so far as it might require regulation of the hours of employment of young persons who have attained the age of fifteen years in respect of work in non-industrial establishments.
    Where at any time there is a lack of suitable detention facilities or where the mixing of adults and children is deemed to be mutually beneficial, the United Kingdom, in respect of each of its dependent territories, reserves the right not to apply article 37 (c) in so far as those provisions require children who are detained to be accommodated separately from adults.
    The United Kingdom, in respect of Hong Kong and the Cayman Islands, will seek to apply the Convention to the fullest extent to children seeking asylum in those territories except in so far as conditions and resources make full implementation impracticable. In particular, in relation to article 22, the United Kingdom reserves the right to continue to apply any legislation in those territories governing the detention of children seeking refugee status, the determination of their status and their entry into, stay in and departure from those territories.
    The Government of the United Kingdom reserves the right to extend the Convention at a later date to any other territories for whose international relations the Government of the United Kingdom is responsible."

    Alueellinen soveltaminen: 7.9.1994: the Convention will apply to the Isle of Man, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, St. Helena, St. Helena Dependencies, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands.

    extension to the territory of the Bailiwick of Jersey 29.4.2014

  • ISRAEL
    Sitoutumispäivä: 03.10.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.11.1991
  • ITALIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.09.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 05.10.1991
  • ITÄ-TIMOR
    Sitoutumispäivä: 16.04.2003 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 16.05.2003
  • ITÄVALTA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.08.1992 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 05.09.1992
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    "1. Article 13 and article 15 of the Convention will be applied provided that they will not affect legal restrictions in accordance with article 10 and article 11 of the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950.
    "2. Article 17 will be applied to the extent that it is compatible with the basic rights of others, in particular with the basic rights of freedom of information and freedom of press."
    Declarations:
    "1. Austria will not make any use of the possibility provided for in article 38, paragraph 2, to determine an age limit of 15 years for taking part in hostilities as this rule is incompatible with article 3, paragraph 1, which determines that the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
    "2. Austria declares, in accordance with its constitutional law, to apply article 38, paragraph 3, provided that only male Austrian citizens are subject to compulsory military service."

  • JAMAIKA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 14.05.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 13.06.1991
  • JAPANI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 22.04.1994 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 22.05.1994
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    "In applying paragraph (c) of article 37 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Japan reserves the right not to be bound by the provision in its second sentence, that is, `every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child´s best interest not to do so´, considering the fact that in Japan as regards persons deprived of liberty, those who are below twenty years of age are to be generally separated from those who are of twenty years of age and over under its national law."
    Declarations:
    1. The Government of Japan declares that paragraph 1 of article 9 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child be interpreted not to apply to a case where a child is separated from his or her parents as a result of deportation in accordance with its immigration law.
    2. The Government of Japan declares further that the obligation to deal with applications to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family re-unification `in a positive, humane and expeditious manner´ provided for in paragraph 1 of article 10 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child be interpreted not to affect the outcome of such applications."

  • JEMEN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 01.05.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 31.05.1991
  • JORDANIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 24.05.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 23.06.1991
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan expresses its reservation and does not consider itself bound by articles 14, 20 and 21 of the Convention, which grant the child the right to freedom of choice of religion and concern the question of adoption, since they are at variance with the precepts of the tolerant Islamic Shariah.

  • JUGOSLAVIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 12.03.2001 VS
    Voimaantulopäivä: 27.04.1992
  • KAMBODZHA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 15.10.1992 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 14.11.1992
  • KAMERUN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 11.01.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 10.02.1993
  • KANADA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 13.12.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 12.01.1992
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    "(i) Article 21
    With a view to ensuring full respect for the purposes and intent of article 20 (3) and article 30 of the Convention, the Government of Canada reserves the right not to apply the provisions of article 21 to the extent that they may be inconsistent with customary forms of care among aboriginal peoples in Canada.
    "(ii) Article 37 (c)
    The Government of Canada accepts the general principles of article 37 (c) of the Convention, but reserves the right not to detain children separately from adults where this is not appropriate or feasible.
    Statement of understanding:
    "Article 30:
    It is the understanding of the Government of Canada that, in matters relating to aboriginal peoples of Canada, the fulfilment of its responsibilities under article 4 of the Convention must take into account the provisions of article 30. In particular, in assessing what measures are appropriate to implement the rights recognized in the Convention for aboriginal children, due regard must be paid to not denying their right, in community with other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion and to use their own language."

  • KAP VERDE
    Sitoutumispäivä: 04.06.1992 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.07.1992
  • KAZAKSTAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 12.08.1994 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 11.09.1994
  • KENIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 30.07.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • KESKI-AFRIKAN TASAVALTA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 23.04.1992 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 23.05.1992
  • KIINA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 02.03.1992 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 01.04.1992
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    [T]he People´s Republic of China shall fulfil its obligations provided by article 6 of the Convention under the prerequisite that the Convention accords with the provisions of article 25 concerning family planning of the Constitution of the People´s Republic of China and in conformity with the provisions of article 2 of the Law of Minor Children of the People´s Republic of China.

    Upon resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, China notified the Secretary-General that the Convention with the reservation made by China will also apply to the Hong Kong special Administrative Region.
    In addition, the notification made by the Government of China contained the following declaration:
    1. The Government of the People´s Republic of China, on behalf of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, interprets the Convention as applicable only following a live birth.
    2. The Government of the People´s Republic of China reserves, for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the right to apply such legislation, in so far as it relates to the entry into, stay in and departure from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of those who do not have the right under the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to enter and remain in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and to the acquisition and possession of residentship as it may deem necessary from time to time.
    3. The Government of the People´s Republic of China interprets, on behalf of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the references in the Convention to "parents" to mean only those persons who, under the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, are treated as parents. This includes cases where the laws regard a child as having only one parent, for example where a child has been adopted by one person only and in certain cases where a child is conceived other than as a result of sexual intercourse by the woman who gives birth to it and she is treated as the only parent.
    4. The Government of the People´s Republic of China reserves, for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the right not to apply article 32 (2) (b) of the Convention in so far as it might require regulation of the hours of employment of young persons who have attained the age of fifteen years in respect of work in non-industrial establishments.
    5. ....
    6. Where at any time there is a lack of suitable detention facilities, or where the mixing of adults and children is deemed to be mutually beneficial, the Government of the People´s Republic of China reserves, for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the right not to apply article 37 (c) of the Convention in so far as those provisions require children who are detained to be accommodated separately from adults.

    Upon resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Macao, China notified the Secretary-General that the Convention with the reservation made by China will also apply to the Maco Special Administrative Region.


    Alueellinen soveltaminen: Sovelletaan myös Hongkongiin 1.7.1997 lukien ja Macaoon 20.12.1999 lukien.

  • KIRGISIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 07.10.1994 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.11.1994
  • KIRIBATI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 11.12.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 10.01.1996
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    "In respect of article 24 paragraphs (b,c,d,e and f), article 26 and article 28 paragraphs (b,c and d), in accordance with article 51 paragraph 1 of the Convention.
    Declaration:
    The Republic of Kiribati considers that a child´s rights as defined in the Convention, in particular the rights defined in articles 12-16 shall be exercised with respect for parental authority, in accordance with the Kiribati customs and traditions regarding the place of the child within and outside the family."

  • KOLUMBIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 28.01.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 27.02.1991
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    The Colombian Government considers that, while the minimum age of 15 years for taking part in armed conflicts, set forth in article 38 of the Convention, is the outcome of serious negotiations which reflect various legal, political and cultural systems in the world, it would have been preferable to fix that age at 18 years in accordance with the principles and norms prevailing in various regions and countries, Colombia among them, for which reason the Colombian Government, for the purpose of article 38 of the Convention, shall construe the age in question to be 18 years.
    Upon ratification:
    Reservation:
    The Government of Colombia, pursuant to article 2, paragraph 1 (d) of the Convention, declares that for the purposes of article 38, paragraphs 2 and 3, of the Convention, the age referred to in said paragraphs shall be understood to be 18 years, given the fact that, under Colombian law, the minimum age for recruitment into the armed forces of personnel called for military service is 18 years.

  • KOMORIT
    Sitoutumispäivä: 22.06.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 22.07.1993
  • KONGO-BRAZZAVILLE
    Sitoutumispäivä: 14.10.1993 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 13.11.1993
  • KONGO-KINSHASA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 27.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 27.10.1990
  • KREIKKA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 11.05.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 10.06.1993
  • KROATIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 12.10.1992 VS
    Voimaantulopäivä: 08.10.1991
  • KUUBA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.08.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 20.09.1991
    Varauma:

    Declaration:
    With reference to article 1 of the Convention, the Government of the Republic of Cuba declares that in Cuba, under the domestic legislation in force, majority is not attained at 18 years of age for purposes of the full exercise of civic rights.

  • KUWAIT
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.10.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 20.11.1991
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    Reservation:
    "[Kuwait expresses] reservations on all provisions of the Convention that are incompatible with the laws of Islamic Shari´a and the local statutes in effect."
    Upon ratification:
    Declarations:
    Article 7:
    The State of Kuwait understands the concepts of this article to signify the right of the child who was born in Kuwait and whose parents are unknown (parentless) to be granted the Kuwaiti nationality as stipulated by the Kuwaiti Nationality Laws.
    Article 21:
    The State of Kuwait, as it adheres to the provisions of the Islamic shariah as the main source of legislation, strictly bans abandoning the Islamic religion and does not therefore approve adoption.

  • KYPROS
    Sitoutumispäivä: 07.02.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 09.03.1991
  • LAOS
    Sitoutumispäivä: 08.05.1991 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 07.06.1991
  • LATVIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 14.04.1992 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 14.05.1992
  • LESOTHO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 10.03.1992 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 09.04.1992
  • LIBANON
    Sitoutumispäivä: 14.05.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 13.06.1991
  • LIBERIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 04.06.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.07.1993
  • LIBYA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 15.04.1993 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 15.05.1993
  • LIECHTENSTEIN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 22.12.1995 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 21.01.1996
    Varauma:

    Reservation concerning article 10:
    "The Principality of Liechtenstein reserves the right to apply the Liechtenstein legislation according to which family re-unification for certain categories of foreigners is not guarantied."

    On 10 December 2003: "The Principality of Liechtenstein partially withdraws its reservation concerning article 10 of the Convention as contained in the annex of the instrument of accession of 18 December 1995, namely with regard to paragraph 2 of the article guaranteeing the right of the child to maintain personal relations and direct contacts with both parents."

  • LIETTUA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 31.01.1992 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 01.03.1992
  • LUXEMBURG
    Sitoutumispäivä: 07.03.1994 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.04.1994
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    1. The Government of Luxembourg believes that it is in the interest of families and children to maintain the provision of article 334-6 of the Civil Code, which reads as follows:
    Article 334-6. If at the time of conception, the father or mother was bound in marriage to another person, the natural child may be raised in the conjugal home only with the consent of the spouse of his parent.
    2. The Government of Luxembourg declares that the present Convention does not require modification of the legal status of children born to parents between whom marriage is absolutely prohibited, such status being warranted by the interest of the child, as provided under article 3 of the Convention.
    3. The Government of Luxembourg declares that article 6 of the present Convention presents no obstacle to implementation of the provisions of Luxembourg legislation concerning sex information, the prevention of back-street abortion and the regulation of pregnancy termination.
    4. The Government of Luxembourg believes that article 7 of the Convention presents no obstacle to the legal process in respect of anonymous births, which is deemed to be in the interest of the child, as provided under article 3 of the Convention.
    5. The Government of Luxembourg declares that article 15 of the present Convention does not impede the provisions of Luxembourg legislation concerning the capacity to exercise rights.

  • MACAO
    Sitoutumispäivä: -
    Voimaantulopäivä: -
  • MADAGASKAR
    Sitoutumispäivä: 19.03.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 18.04.1991
  • MAKEDONIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 02.12.1993 VS
    Voimaantulopäivä: 17.09.1991
  • MALAWI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 02.01.1991 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 01.02.1991
  • MALEDIIVIT
    Sitoutumispäivä: 11.02.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 13.03.1991
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    Reservations:
    "1) Since the Islamic Shariah is one of the fundamental sources of Maldivian Law and since Islamic Shariah does not include the system of adoption among the ways and means for the protection and care of children contained in Shariah, the Government of the Republic of Maldives expresses its reservation with respect to all the clauses and provisions relating to adoption in the said Convention on the Rights of the Child.
    "2) The Government of the Republic of Maldives expresses its reservation to paragraph 1 of article 14 of the said Convention on the Rights of the Child, since the Constitution and the Laws of the Republic of Maldives stipulate that all Maldivians should be Muslims."
    Upon ratification:
    Reservations to articles 14 and 21.

  • MALESIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 17.02.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 19.03.1995
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    "The Government of Malaysia accepts the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child but expresses reservations with respect to articles 2, 7, 14, 28, paragraph 1 (a) and 37 of the Convention and declares that the said provisions shall be applicable only if they are in conformity with the Constitution, national laws and national policies of the Government of Malaysia."

    Declaration:
    With respect to article 28 paragraph 1 (a), the Government of Malaysia wishes to declare that with the amendment to the Education Act 1996 in the year 2002, primary education in Malaysia is made compulsory. In addition, the Government of Malaysia provides monetary aids and other forms of assistance to those who are eligible.

  • MALI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 20.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 20.10.1990
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    The Government of the Republic of Mali declares that, in view of the provisions of the Mali Family Code, there is no reason to apply article 16 of the Convention.

  • MALTA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 30.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 30.10.1990
  • MAROKKO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.06.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 21.07.1993
    Varauma:

    Declarations
    The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco interprets the provisions of article 14, paragraph 1, of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the light of the Constitution of 7 October 1996 and the other relevant provisions of its domestic law, as follows:

    Article 6 of the Constitution, which provides that Islam, the State religion, shall guarantee freedom of worship for all.

    Article 54, paragraph 6, of Act 70-03 (the Family Code), which stipulates that parents owe their children the right to religious guidance and education based on good conduct.

    By this declaration, the Kingdom of Morocco reaffirms its attachment to universally recognized human rights and its commitment to the purposes of the aforementioned Convention.

  • MARSHALLINSAARET
    Sitoutumispäivä: 04.10.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 03.11.1993
  • MAURITANIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 16.05.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 15.06.1991
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    Reservation:
    In signing this important Convention, the Islamic Republic of Mauritania is making reservations to articles or provisions which may be contrary to the beliefs and values of Islam, the religion of the Mauritania People and State.

  • MAURITIUS
    Sitoutumispäivä: 26.07.1990 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • MEKSIKO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 21.10.1990
  • MIKRONESIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.05.1993 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.06.1993
  • MOLDOVA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 26.01.1993 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 25.02.1993
  • MONACO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.06.1993 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 21.07.1993
    Varauma:

    Declaration:
    The Principality of Monaco declares that this Convention, especially article 7, shall not affect the rules laid down in Monegasque legislation regarding nationality.
    Reservation:
    The Principality of Monaco interprets article 40, paragraph 2 (b)(v) as stating a general principle which has a number of statutory exceptions. Such, for example, is the case with respect to certain criminal offences. In any event, in all matters the Judicial Review Court rules definitively on appeals against all decisions of last resort.

  • MONGOLIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.07.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • MONTENEGRO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 23.10.2006 VS
    Voimaantulopäivä: 03.06.2006
  • MOSAMBIK
    Sitoutumispäivä: 26.04.1994 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 26.05.1994
  • MYANMAR
    Sitoutumispäivä: 15.07.1991 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 14.08.1991
  • NAMIBIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 30.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 30.10.1990
  • NAURU
    Sitoutumispäivä: 27.07.1994 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 26.08.1994
  • NEPAL
    Sitoutumispäivä: 14.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 14.10.1990
  • NICARAGUA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.10.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.11.1990
  • NIGER
    Sitoutumispäivä: 30.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 30.10.1990
  • NIGERIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 19.04.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 19.05.1991
  • NIUE
    Sitoutumispäivä: 20.12.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 19.01.1996
  • NORJA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 08.01.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 07.02.1991
  • NORSUNLUURANNIKKO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 04.02.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.03.1991
  • OMAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 09.12.1996 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 08.01.1997
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    1. The words "or to public safety" should be added in article 9 [, paragraph 4,] after the words "unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child.
    2. A reservation is entered to all the provisions of the Convention that do not accord with Islamic law or the legislation in force in the Sultanate and, in particular, to the provisions relating to adoption set forth in its article 21.
    3. The provisions of the Convention should be applied within the limits imposed by the material resources available.
    4. The Sultanate considers that article 7 of the Convention as it relates to the nationality of a child shall be understood to mean that a child born in the Sultanate of unknown parents shall acquire Oman nationality, as stipulated in the Sultanate´s Nationality Law.
    5. The Sultanate does not consider itself to be bound by those provisions of article 14 of the Convention that accord a child the right to choose his or her religion or those of its article 30 that allow a child belonging to a religious minority to profess his or her own religion.

  • PAKISTAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 12.11.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 12.12.1990
  • PALAU
    Sitoutumispäivä: 04.08.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 03.09.1995
  • PALESTIINALAISALUEET
    Sitoutumispäivä: 02.04.2014 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.05.2014
  • PANAMA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 12.12.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 11.01.1991
  • PAPUA-UUSI-GUINEA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 02.03.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 01.04.1993
  • PARAGUAY
    Sitoutumispäivä: 25.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 25.10.1990
  • PERU
    Sitoutumispäivä: 04.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.10.1990
  • POHJOIS-KOREA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 21.10.1990
  • PORTUGALI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 21.10.1990
  • PUOLA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 07.06.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 07.07.1991
    Varauma:

    Declarations:
    - The Republic of Poland considers that a child´s rights as defined in the Convention, in particular the rights defined in articles 12 to 16, shall be exercised with respect for parental authority, in accordance with Polish customs and traditions regarding the place of the child within and outside the family;
    - With respect to article 24, paragraph 2 (f), of the Convention, the Republic of Poland considers that family planning and education services for parents should be in keeping with the prin ciples of morality.

  • PÄIVÄNTASAAJAN GUINEA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 15.06.1992 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 15.07.1992
  • QATAR
    Sitoutumispäivä: 03.04.1995 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 03.05.1995
    Varauma:

    Reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
    [The State of Qatar] enter(s) a general reservation by the State of Qatar concerning provisions incompatible with Islamic Law.

    29 April 2009: Now therefore We declare, by means of the present instrument, the partial withdrawal by the State of Qatar of its general reservation, which shall continue to apply in respect of the provisions of articles 2 and 14 of the Convention.

  • RANSKA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 07.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.09.1990
    Varauma:

    Declarations and reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
    (1) The Government of the French Republic declares that this Convention, particularly article 6, cannot be interpreted as constituting any obstacle to the implementation of the provisions of French legislation relating to the voluntary interruption of pregnancy.
    (2) The Government of the Republic declares that, in the light of article 2 of the Constitution of the French Republic, article 30 is not applicable so far as the Republic is concerned.
    (3) The Government of the Republic construes article 40, paragraph 2 (b) (v), as establishing a general principle to which limited exceptions may be made under law. This is particularly the case for certain non-appealable offences tried by the Police Court and for offences of a criminal nature. None the less, the decisions handed down by the final court of jurisdiction may be appealed before the Court of Cassation, which shall rule on the legality of the decision taken.

  • ROMANIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 28.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 28.10.1990
  • RUANDA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 24.01.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 23.02.1991
  • RUOTSI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 29.06.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • SAINT KITTS JA NEVIS
    Sitoutumispäivä: 24.07.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • SAINT LUCIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 16.06.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 16.07.1993
  • SAINT VINCENT JA GRENADIINIT
    Sitoutumispäivä: 26.10.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 25.11.1993
  • SAKSA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.03.1992 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 05.04.1992
  • SALOMONSAARET
    Sitoutumispäivä: 10.04.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 10.05.1995
  • SAMBIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.12.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 05.01.1992
  • SAMOA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 29.11.1994 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 29.12.1994
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    "The Government of Western Samoa whilst recognising the importance of providing free primary education as specified under article 28 (1)(a) of the Convention on the rights of the child
    And being mindful of the fact that the greater portion of schools within Western Samoa that provide primary education are controlled by bodies outside the control of the government
    Pursuant then to article 51, the Government of Western Samoa thus reserves the right to allocate resources to the primary level sector of education in Western Samoa in contrast to the requirement of article 28 (1)(a) to provide free primary education."

  • SAN MARINO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 25.11.1991 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 25.12.1991
  • SAO TOME JA PRINCIPE
    Sitoutumispäivä: 14.05.1991 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 13.06.1991
  • SAUDI-ARABIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 26.01.1996 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 25.02.1996
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    [The Government of Saudi Arabia enters] reservations with respect to all such articles as are in conflict with the provisions of Islamic law.

  • SENEGAL
    Sitoutumispäivä: 31.07.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • SERBIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 12.03.2001 VS
    Voimaantulopäivä: -
  • SEYCHELLIT
    Sitoutumispäivä: 07.09.1990 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 07.10.1990
  • SIERRA LEONE
    Sitoutumispäivä: 18.06.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • SINGAPORE
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.10.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.11.1995
    Varauma:

    Declarations:
    "(1) The Republic of Singapore considers that a child´s rights as defined in the Convention, in particular the rights defined in article 12 to 17, shall in accordance with articles 3 and 5 be exercised with respect for the authority of parents, schools and other persons who are entrusted with the care of the child and in the best interests of the child and in accordance with the customs, values and religions of Singapore´s multi-racial and multi-religious society regarding the place of the child within and outside the family.
    (2) The Republic of Singapore considers that articles 19 and 37 of the Convention do not prohibit -
    (a) the application of any prevailing measures prescribed by law for maintaining law and order in the Republic of Singapore;
    (b) measures and restrictions which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in the interests of national security, public safety, public order, the protection of public health or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others; or
    (c) the judicious application of corporal punishment in the best interest of the child.
    Reservations:
    (3) The Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Singapore provide adequate protection and fundamental rights and liberties in the best interests of the child. The accession to the Convention by the Republic of Singapore does not imply the acceptance of obligations going beyond the limits prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore nor the acceptance of any obligation to introduce any right beyond those prescribed under the Constitution.
    (4) Singapore is geographically one of the smallest independent countries in the world and one of the most densely populated. The Republic of Singapore accordingly reserves the right to apply such legislation and conditions concerning the entry into, stay in and departure from the Republic of Singapore of those who do not or who no longer have the right under the laws of the Republic of Singapore, to enter and remain in the Republic of Singapore, and to the acquisition and possession of citizenship, as it may deem necessary from time to time and in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Singapore.
    (5) The employment legislation of the Republic of Singapore prohibits the employment of children below 12 years old and gives special protection to working children between the ages of 12 years and below the age of 16 years. The Republic of Singapore reserves the right to apply article 32 subject to such employment legislation.
    (6) With respect to article 28.1(a), the Republic of Singapore-
    (a) does not consider itself bound by the requirement to make primary education compulsory because such a measure is unnecessary in our social context where in practice virtually all children attend primary school; and
    (b) reserves the right to provide primary education free only to children who are citizens of Singapore."

  • SLOVAKIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 28.05.1993 VS
    Voimaantulopäivä: 01.01.1993
  • SLOVENIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.07.1992 VS
    Voimaantulopäivä: 25.06.1991
  • SOMALIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 01.10.2015 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 31.10.2015
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    "The Federal Republic of Somalia does not consider itself bound by Articles 14, 20, 21 of the above stated Convention and any other provisions of the Convention contrary to the General Principles of Islamic Sharia."

  • SRI LANKA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 12.07.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 11.08.1991
  • SUDAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 03.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • SURINAM
    Sitoutumispäivä: 01.03.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 31.03.1993
  • SVEITSI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 24.02.1997 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: -
    Varauma:

    Declaration:
    Switzerland refers expressly to the obligations of all States to apply the rules of international humanitarian law and national law to the extent that they ensure better protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.
    (a) -
    (b) Reservation concerning article 7:
    -
    (c) Reservation concerning article 10, paragraph 1:
    Swiss legislation, which does not guarantee family reunification to certain categories of aliens, is unaffected.
    (d) Reservation concerning article 37(c):
    The separation of children deprived of liberty from adults is not unconditionally guarantied.
    (e) Reservation concerning article 40:
    The Swiss penal procedure applicable to children, which does not guarantee either the unconditional right to assistance or separation, where personnel or organization is concerned, between the examining authority and the sentencing authority, is unaffected.

  • SWAZIMAA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 07.09.1995 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 07.10.1995
    Varauma:

    Declaration:
    "The Convention on the Rights of the Child being a point of departure to guarantee child rights; taking into consideration the progressive character of the implementation of certain social, economic and cultural rights; as recognized in article 4 of the Convention, the Government of the Kingdom of Swaziland would undertake the implementation of the right to free primary education to the maximum extent of available resources and expects to obtain the co-operation of the international Community for its full satisfaction as soon as possible."

  • SYYRIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 15.07.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 14.08.1993
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    The Syrian Arab Republic has reservations on the Convention´s provisions which are not in conformity with the Syrian Arab legislations and with the Islamic Shariah´s principles, in particular the content of article (14) related to the Right of the Child to the freedom of religion, ...

  • TADZHIKISTAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 26.10.1993 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 25.11.1993
  • TANSANIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 10.06.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 10.07.1991
  • TANSKA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 19.07.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 18.08.1991
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    "Article 40, paragraph 2 (b) (v) shall not be binding on Denmark.
    "It is a fundamental principle of the Danish Administration of Justice Act that everybody shall be entitled to have any penal measures imposed on him or her by a court of first instance reviewed by a higher court. There are, however, some provisions limiting this right in certain cases, for instance verdicts returned by a jury on the question of guilt, which have not been reversed by the legally trained judges of the court."


    Alueellinen soveltaminen: Sovelletaan myös Färsaariin ja Grönlantiin 11.5.1993 alkaen.

  • THAIMAA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 27.03.1992 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 26.04.1992
    Varauma:

    Reservation:
    "The application of articles ..., 22 .... of the Convention on the Rights of the Child shall be subject to the national laws, regulations and prevailing practices in Thailand."

  • TOGO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 01.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • TONGA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.11.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.12.1995
  • TRINIDAD JA TOBAGO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 05.12.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.01.1992
  • TSHAD
    Sitoutumispäivä: 02.10.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 01.11.1990
  • TSHEKKI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 22.02.1993 VS
    Voimaantulopäivä: 01.01.1993
  • TUNISIA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 30.01.1992 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 29.02.1992
    Varauma:

    Declarations:
    ...
    3. The Government of the Republic of Tunisia declares that the Preamble to and the provisions of the Convention, in particular article 6, shall not be interpreted in such a way as to impede the application of Tunisian legislation concerning voluntary termination of pregnancy.

  • TURKKI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 04.04.1995 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 04.05.1995
    Varauma:

    Reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
    The Republic of Turkey reserves the right to interpret and apply the provisions of articles 17, 29 and 30 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child according to the letter and the spirit of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey and those of the Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923.

  • TURKMENISTAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 20.09.1993 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 20.10.1993
  • TUVALU
    Sitoutumispäivä: 22.09.1995 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 22.10.1995
  • UGANDA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 17.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 16.09.1990
  • UKRAINA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 28.08.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 27.09.1991
  • UNKARI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 07.10.1991 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.11.1991
  • URUGUAY
    Sitoutumispäivä: 20.11.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 20.12.1990
    Varauma:

    Upon signature:
    Declaration:
    On signing this Convention, Uruguay reaffirms the right to make reservations upon ratification, if it considers it appropriate.
    Upon ratification:
    Reservation:
    The Government of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay affirms, in regard to the provisions of article 38, paragraphs 2 and 3, that in accordance with Uruguayan law it would have been desirable for the lower age limit for taking a direct part in hostilities in the event of an armed conflict to be set at 18 years instead of 15 years as provided in the Convention.
    Furthermore, the Government of Uruguay declares that, in the exercise of its sovereign will, it will not authorize any persons under its jurisdiction who have not attained the age of 18 years to take a direct part in hostilities and will not under any circumstances recruit persons who have not attained the age of 18 years.

  • UUSI-SEELANTI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 06.04.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.05.1993
    Varauma:

    Reservations:
    Nothing in this Convention shall affect the right of the Government of New Zealand to continue to distinguish as it considers appropriate in its law and practice between persons accord ing to the nature of their authority to be in New Zealand including but not limited to their entitlement to benefits and other protections described in the Convention, and the Government of New Zealand reserves the right to interpret and apply the Convention accordingly.
    The Government of New Zealand considers that the rights of the child provided for in article 32 (1) are adequately protected by its existing law. It therefore reserves the right not to legislate further or to take additional measures as may be envisaged in article 32 (2).
    The Government of New Zealand reserves the right not to apply article 37 (c) in circumstances where the shortage of suitable facilities makes the mixing of juveniles and adults unavoidable; and further reserves the right not to apply article 37 (c) where the interests of other juveniles in an establishment require the removal of a particular juvenile offender or where mixing is considered to be of benefit to the persons concerned.


    Alueellinen soveltaminen: Ei sovelleta Tokelauhun.

  • UZBEKISTAN
    Sitoutumispäivä: 29.06.1994 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 29.07.1994
  • VALKO-VENÄJÄ
    Sitoutumispäivä: 01.10.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 31.10.1990
  • VANUATU
    Sitoutumispäivä: 07.07.1993 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 06.08.1993
  • VATIKAANI
    Sitoutumispäivä: 20.04.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • VENEZUELA
    Sitoutumispäivä: 13.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 13.10.1990
    Varauma:

    Interpretative declarations:
    1. A ticle 21 (b):
    The Government of Venezuela understands this provision as referring to international adoption and in no circumstances to placement in a foster home outside the country. It is also its view that the provision cannot be interpreted to the detriment of the State´s obligation to ensure due protection of the child.
    2. Article 21 (d):
    The Government of Venezuela takes the position that neither the adoption nor the placement of children should in any circumstances result in financial gain for those in any way involved in it.
    3. Article 30:
    The Government of Venezuela takes the position that this article must be interpreted as a case in which article 2 of the Convention applies.

  • VENÄJÄ
    Sitoutumispäivä: 16.08.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 15.09.1990
  • VIETNAM
    Sitoutumispäivä: 28.02.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 02.09.1990
  • VIRO
    Sitoutumispäivä: 21.10.1991 L
    Voimaantulopäivä: 20.11.1991
    Varauma:

    12 February 2014
    “According to Article 3 paragraph 2 the Republic of Estonia declares that the minimum age for voluntary recruitment into national armed forces is 18 years.”

  • ZIMBABWE
    Sitoutumispäivä: 11.09.1990 R
    Voimaantulopäivä: 11.10.1990

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